Seastar - Asynchronous C++ framework

Lately, there are many discussions in the programming community in general and in c++ community in particular on how to write efficient asynchronous code. Many concepts like futures, continuations, coroutines are being discussed by c++ standard committee but not much progress was made besides very minimal support of C++11 futures.

On the other hand, many mainstream programming languages progressed quicker and adopted asynchronous models either into a core language or popularized it via standard libraries. For example, Python (yield) and Lua use coroutines to achieve asynchronisity, java uses continuations and futures, golang and Erlang use green threads, and C and Javascript use callback based actor models. However, C++ historically lacked the official support for asynchronous programming, which forced the community to introduce ad-hoc frameworks and libraries that provided this functionality.

I would like to share my opinion on what I think will be the best direction for asynchronous models in C++ by reviewing two prominent frameworks: Seastar and Boost.Fiber. This (opinionated) post reviews Seastar.


Before I talk about Seastar I want to describe the problem that asynchronous programming models solve the way I see it:

Given a single execution thread and a program flow consisting of potentially blocking task how can we write a program that fully utilizes this thread. “fully utilizes” in this context means that the execution thread won’t sleep as long as there are any (CPU) tasks that could be performed.

Please note that asynchronous programming is not the same as multi-threading even though multi-threading might provide a workaround to a similar problem: Given a single CPU core how can we write a program that fully utilizes this CPU. Asynchronous programming here is discussed only in the context of a single thread, even though many models provide a complete solution for both asynchronous programming and multi-threaded environments.

Seastar is a power-horse behind a very efficient Nosql database ScyllaDB and is developed by a very talented team of world-class developers. Seastar is a framework that adopts continuation-passing style (CSP) of writing fully asynchronous code.

CSP programming solves asynchronous programming by breaking the program flow into CPU-only tasks that should not block any IO requests. Each IO request returns a future object describing the result. Program flow is extended by appending to a future a possible continuation - either a cpu-task or another io-request.

The Seastar framework itself has proven to be very efficient. In fact, it allows responding to requests with sub-millisecond latencies (even at 99nth percentile) and scale linearly in the number of cores. It has been used already in a few projects and gave consistently superior performance compared to the existing alternatives.

Seastar shows the true potential of the hardware it utilizes. It has lots of pre-built constructs to cover many synchronization scenarios and I think it’s a perfect candidate to analyze how futures and continuations code might look in C++.

Scopes and execution context

Right from the start, it was hard for me to get used to the unique style of writing CSP. The problem is common to Java futures as well, not just to C++ or Seastar.

Consider, for example, the following code taken from Seastar’s wiki page. It starts a listener loop on port 1234 that accepts server connections. For each accepted connection, it writes a response into the socket and then closes it.

seastar::future<> service_loop() {
    seastar::listen_options lo;
    lo.reuse_address = true;

    return seastar::do_with(seastar::listen(seastar::make_ipv4_address({1234}), lo),
            [] (auto& listener) {
        return seastar::keep_doing([&listener] () {
            return listener.accept().then(
                [] (seastar::connected_socket s, seastar::socket_address a) {
                    auto out = s.output();
                    return seastar::do_with(std::move(s), std::move(out),
                        [] (auto& s, auto& out) {
                            return out.write(canned_response).then([&out] {
                                return out.close();

The code has a notable flow that is common to all continuation-passing frameworks. It indents to the right with each continuation or lambda function. There are lots of lambdas involved, which makes it very hard to follow after scope limits.

Every continuation or asynchronous function breaks the execution context, and it becomes a non-trivial effort to reason about the flow of the program.

Now consider seastar::keep_doing. It is a pre-built routine that accepts an (a)synchronous function as an argument, and allows running this function in the infinite but preemptable loop. Why do we need such a function? Suppose our goal is to schedule do_smthing_async() time after time sequentially. The function itself might block due to I/O, but we do not want to stall the execution thread. Since we want to write fully asynchronous code, we can not just write while (true) { do_smthing_async(); } because then we are trapped inside the loop. Instead keep_doing uses “futurized” recursion to run the code and schedule it again (simplified below):

  // AsyncAction is a callback returning seastar::future<> des an asynchronous computation.
  template seastar::future<> keep_doing(AsynchAction action) {
    return action.then([action] { return keep_doing(action);});

The code above is very simplified and the real Seastar code can handle many loops constructs with synchronous or asynchronous functions. In addition, Seastar does optimizations to improve the latency of asynchronous operations when possible. As a result, keep_doing provides meta construct to tell Seastar engine about asynchronous state-machine describing a loop. The execution thread is not blocked we schedule the loop. Eventually, when we schedule the initial state of the program the main thread will enter the execution loop which will start unwinding the state that was queued into the engine and execute its asynchronous commands.

As a result, C++ language is used to create and connect Seastar data-structures that tell the Seastar framework how to run functions instead of actually running them. Such style differs greatly from classic C++ programming. Some native C++ constructs work differently with such flow. For example, if exceptions are thrown in CSP code it’s not immediately clear where to put the catch handler: exceptions can be thrown from the code currently scheduling the io request, or alternatively, they might be thrown from the continuation lambda when it runs. Both cases require different handling. As a result, continuation chaining has implicit interactions that are not tracked via core language.

Object life management.

If following the execution context can be hard in C++, then tracking object lifecycles can be a real hell.

Unlike in Python, Java, Go, a c++ programmer is required to think about object lifecycle and with CSP it’s much harder even with naive looking cases. Consider the following code:

seastar::future<uint64_t> slow_size(file f) {
    return seastar::sleep(10ms).then([f] {
        return f.size();

f.size() is implemented as an asynchronous operation because it might need to read file attributes from the disk i.e. to block on IO. The lambda that captures f exits immediately after issuing an asynchronous call f.size(). The asynchronous code that is gonna run by the framework requires f to exist, of course, but f captured by lambda and is gonna be destroyed after the lambda exits. In order to prolong the object’s life we are advised to add finally([f] {}) which serves as an object scoped guard for Seastar flow.

seastar::future<uint64_t> slow_size(file f) {
    return seastar::sleep(10ms).then([f] {
        return f.size().finally([f]{});

Let’s see another example. Suppose we have a moveable-only class pipe that has an asynchronous method future<> read(size_t, AsyncFunc f). AsyncFunc is a function that is expected to receive a future object containing buffer contents upon successful read. With lessons learned from the previous example, we might write the following code to keep p alive while lambda runs.

future<> (pipe p) {
  return, [p = std::move(p)] (auto future_buf) { handle(future_buf); ... });

Unfortunately, this code causes “undefined behavior” and most likely will crash because C++ does not specify correct order for evaluating lambda capture and a function call inside the same execution statement. So what may (and does) happen is that the compiler first moves the object p into the lambda and then calls on already undefined object p. The workaround to this problem is to use shared_ptr to allow copy semantics and pay attention to captures that move objects.

As you can see using CSP in C++ is not a trivial matter and I showed only a few issues a programmer needs to think about when he uses Seastar. Unfortunately, it’s not Seastar to blame - it comes from the fact that C++ is not designed to describe CSP flows.

Seastar team tries to overcome those difficulties by providing building blocks for most common synchronization patterns and for giving an idiomatic way on how to use their framework. One of the disadvantages of this approach is that many of their utilities hide memory allocations, which is by itself anti-idiomatic to C++. For example, their solution to the problem above is using do_with construct that allows binding the scope of moveable objects to their asynchronous operations but hides the allocation of its helper objects. As a result, the framework becomes complicated and hard to learn.

In addition, the constructs like these still do not solve the core problem - future chaining looks confusing and unnatural in C++.

To summarize, Seastar is a very efficient framework but requires total commitment to it right from the start. It allows you to describe fully asynchronous flows but requires lots of attention - debugging the problems might be hard. If you decide using it, you probably won’t be able to integrate it well with other open-source libraries, especially with those that use synchronous system-calls, synchronization mechanisms, and multi-threading. Despite the fact that having the CSP style of writing asynchronous code can be very tedious in C++, hard to reason and error-prone, it’s still possible.

In my next post I will go over Boost.Fiber framework and will explain how it solves asynchronous programming but retains the original style of writing C++ programs.

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